Completed Research Projects

Early Effectiveness Studies

Early studies using the OQ had small numbers of participants, but showed promising results as to positive outcomes for our therapy clients. These early attempts were followed by a longitudinal study with a larger OQ data set (N=164). This was completed in collaboration with David Roseborough, PhD, collecting data for his dissertation at the University Of Minnesota School of Social Work. His study found that race, gender, age, and education did not moderate clinical outcomes, but diagnostic complexity and symptom severity did moderate outcome. The results showed that our treatment produced clinically and statistically significant change. These findings were published in 2006 in the peer-reviewed journal Research on Social Work Practice. Click here to download the article.

An article of one of our other studies (N=78) was co-authored by David Roseborough and was published in 2009 in the Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry. Dr. Roseborough is now an associate professor at the University of St. Thomas and University of St. Catherine School of Social Work in St. Paul and is Hamm Clinic’s research consultant. Go to Research Publications for a listing of articles using Hamm Clinic data.  

Recent Effectiveness Studies

Our most recent study used our growing OQ data set (N=1050) to replicate earlier findings. This effort was supported by 2-year grant from the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsA) awarded to Dr. Roseborough in 2008. This study supported the previous results that therapy clients experienced clinically and statistically significant change over the course of treatment. The larger data set allowed for more advanced statistical modeling that provided additional information on the recovery of client subgroups such as seniors and Spanish-speaking clients. This study has resulted in a second article in the journal Research on Social Work Practice published in 2011. Another article on the nature of recovery of older clients was published in 2013. A third article on the recovery of clients diagnosed with dysthymia is forthcoming.


Follow-up Studies

Pilot Follow-up Study

In 2007 we teamed with two doctoral students from Argosy University who used Hamm Clinic data for their doctoral projects.  Their two-part study sought to determine whether the gains made in therapy were sustained 12 to 18 months after therapy ended. The first part of the study was quantitative and was based on clients’ OQ scores obtained during treatment and from scores obtained 12 to 18 months after therapy ended. Results indicated that psychotherapy at Hamm Clinic appears to be an effective treatment for a range of presenting concerns (depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and personality disorders) with clinically and statistically significant change occurring from intake, throughout the course of treatment, and 12 to 18 months post treatment.  The second part of the study was qualitative and was based on interviews with eight former clients. The interviews sought to determine how therapy affected their lives and what aspects of therapy contributed to the changes that occurred. Former clients indicated that as a result of therapy, they experienced greater satisfaction with their lives, they increased their interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, and they developed greater self acceptance. Participants credited learning to take perspective, being in a secure therapeutic relationship, receiving guidance from their therapists as to how to change, and individualized treatment as contributing most significantly to change. The researchers cited the complementary nature of quantitative and qualitative research as making the results of this study particularly rich and meaningful.

Replicated Follow-up Study

Following our collaboration with students from Argosy, Hamm Clinic replicated the pilot follow-up study in 2010. We analyzed the OQ 45.2 results of 42 former clients who completed treatment 1 to 2 years prior. We also conducted fifteen follow-up interviews. Findings supported the initial results that clinically and statistically significant change occurred from intake, throughout the course of treatment, and 1 to 2 years post treatment. The qualitative results showed that clients identified that their lives were different as a result of therapy, in part because they were less impulsive, better able to tolerate distress and negative emotions, had fewer automatic negative thoughts, had a more stable identity, had improved self care and a greater ability problem solve. One of the interview questions inquired about the most frustrating aspects of therapy for clients. Responses included a lack of understanding of how therapy worked, length of time for change to occur, the long wait list, and having an inexperienced therapist.

The results of this study supported the pilot study’s findings that therapy gains are sustained over time. The results showed small, yet statistically significant, support for an ‘incubation effect’ following the end of therapy. Incubation effect refers to the notion that clients continue to make gains in functioning, even after therapy has ended.